Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic Rhinitis

Treating mild symptoms of allergic rhinitis at home is possible.

Symptoms of allergic rhinitis include nasal congestion, a runny nose, sneezing, and itching. Allergies cause inflammation inside the nose, leading to these symptoms.

In most cases, the main goal of treating this problem is to get rid of these symptoms. If the symptoms are not severe, you can usually treat them yourself. If the home treatment does not work or if the symptoms increase and interfere with normal life, you should consult a doctor.

Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis


The symptoms of allergic rhinitis are very similar to those of the common cold. Symptoms include—

  • Sneezing
  • An itching sensation inside the nose can be quite bothersome.
    Runny nose, stuffy nose, or runny nose
  • These symptoms usually begin shortly after coming in contact with the allergen.

Most patients have mild symptoms and recover easily with effective treatment. However, in some patients, symptoms can be severe and last for years, making a normal life difficult and causing problems. For example, having trouble sleeping

The duration of symptoms may vary from person to person. For example, some people have seasonal allergic rhinitis because they are allergic to seasonal plant and grass pollens, and symptoms go away with the change of season. Others suffer almost year-round.

 

Causes of Allergic Rhinitis:


Allergies to different things cause allergic rhinitis. Allergies trigger the release of a chemical called histamine in our body.

Histamine causes inflammation of the lining of the nose. Then a large amount of mucus-like, slippery fluid is produced inside the nose. Then various symptoms of allergic rhinitis appear, including sneezing and a runny nose.

Different people are allergic to different things. If someone in the family suffers from allergies, genetics increases the chances of other members developing allergies.

Common allergens include:

  • Dust mite
  • Pollen molecule
  • Domesticated animals and birds
  • Fungus
  • Various allergens are present in the workplace environment. For example,
  • Wood powder
  • Flour and baking powder
  • Latex or special rubber gloves

Note that some environmental factors can also cause allergies. Studies have shown that children growing up with smoking habits or dust mites at home may be at increased risk of developing allergies.

The treatment options for allergic rhinitis

If the symptoms are mild, you can treat allergic rhinitis at home. In this case, the goal of treatment is to relieve the symptoms of nasal congestion, runny nose, and sneezing.

Home Remedies for Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis home remedies are:

  • Avoiding allergens. The prevention section below discusses avoiding allergens in detail.
  • Taking antihistamines that do not make you sleepy e.g., cetirizine and loratadine. Cetirizine and Loratadine counteract the histamine released in the body in response to allergies.

Note that different types of antihistamines work best for each person. So you may need to try several types of antihistamines before finding the one that works best for you.

  • Nasal cleansing with nasal drops containing saline or 0.9% sodium chloride They are available in pharmacies under different names, including Salo, Saloride ED, N-Sol, and Hapisol. They help clear allergens from the nose.

Three cases in which a doctor should be consulted:

  • If home remedies don’t work,
  • If symptoms are severe,
  • If severe symptoms interfere with normal living, For example: sleep problems, disruption of daily activities

Medicines for Allergic Rhinitis

Medication can relieve common symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Allergies cannot be completely cured, but medication can help relieve common symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

If the allergy problem occurs during the change of season, you can take medicine for a certain period of time. Once the symptoms are gone, there is no need to take any more medicine. Effective medications for allergic rhinitis include:

Antihistamines

Antihistamines are available at pharmacies as tablets, sprays, drops, syrups, and creams.

Buying antihistamine tablets usually does not require a doctor’s prescription. However, in cases of kidney or liver problems, in cases of convulsion patients, or in cases of children under 2 years of age, a doctor should be consulted before using these medicines.

Note that some antihistamines can cause side effects, such as drowsiness. Therefore, the medicine should not be taken before driving or operating machinery. Take medicine before going to bed at night to avoid risk.

Antihistamine nasal sprays work faster than tablets or syrups. They are more effective in treating allergic rhinitis. However, patients should not use these sprays without a doctor’s advice.

Steroids

Sometimes, doctors recommend using corticosteroid or steroid nasal drops or sprays to treat allergic rhinitis. For example,

Symptoms appear after a few days:

  • If the symptoms persist for a long time,
  • If the nose is blocked or if there is a polyp in the nose,
  • If symptoms do not improve despite home remedies and antihistamines,
  • This medicine helps relieve symptoms by reducing the inflammation inside the nose. Although they take longer to work than antihistamines, their effects last longer.

In certain cases, the doctor may prescribe steroid tablets for 5–10 days to treat severe symptoms.

Side effects are rare among users of steroid nasal sprays and drops. However, in some cases, side effects such as a dry nose, burning inside the nose, or bleeding may occur.

Important Information

Steroid tablets should never be taken without the doctor’s advice. Taking steroids for a long time or in high doses can cause various side effects. So do not buy these medicines by yourself from the internet or from the pharmacy.

Note that if the above treatments do not work, the doctor can increase the dose of steroid spray or drops. In addition, the doctor may advise the patient to use different drugs or to combine multiple types of drugs.

Immunotherapy

In this treatment, the patient becomes habituated to the allergic material over a long period of time. It does not cause allergic reactions in the body. This procedure has the potential for severe allergic reactions. A specialist doctor supervises the treatment to minimize the potential for severe allergic reactions.

The use of immunotherapy is limited. Doctors use this treatment when certain types of allergies become severe. For example, a pollen allergy or hay fever This treatment method is not very common in Bangladesh.

Preventing Allergic Rhinitis

The best way to prevent allergic rhinitis is to avoid things that cause or can cause allergies.

Avoiding allergens completely can be difficult. As such, it can be difficult to be sure whether a house has dust mites or not. Dust mites can spread even in very clean houses. And if you have pets in your house or a close relative, it is normal to avoid contact with them.

To minimize exposure to allergens and relieve the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, individuals can take several effective steps. These will be very effective in relieving the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Below are some effective tips for avoiding common allergens:

Dust mite

Dust mites are one of the biggest causes of allergic reactions. They breed in the dust in the house. They are too small to be seen with the naked eye. So it is quite difficult to identify.

Follow these tips to prevent dust mite allergies:

  • Bed sheets, pillowcases, curtains, soft toys for toddlers, pillows, and pillow covers—wash them in hot water at least once a week.
  • The fewer household items that cannot be easily washed, the better. For example, carpets and woolen blankets Instead of carpet, you can use a hard vinyl floor mat. Blankets can be covered with a synthetic fabric cover that is easily washable.
  • Always keep the areas of the house where you spend a lot of time dust-free and clean. For example, a living room and a bedroom
  • Wear a good mask when making beds and brushing.
  • Use a wet cloth to wipe surfaces that are wipeable, such as the house floor and furniture. e.g., house floor and furniture. In this way, the dust will fly less in the air and will not spread.
  • Some use vacuum cleaners at home. In that case, if possible, you can use a cleaner with a ‘HEPA filter’. They are more effective in removing dust.

Pets Animal

Many people think that animal feathers or fur are the cause of allergic reactions. This is a misconception. Basically, dead cells shed from the bodies of animals and birds, saliva, and dry urine particles trigger allergies.

Avoid pets if you have allergic rhinitis. If that is not possible, then you can follow the following suggestions:

  • Try to keep pets outside the house as much as possible. If rearing outside is not possible, keep them in a separate room at home and avoid using carpets there.
  • Do not allow pets in the bedroom.
  • Bathe the pet at least once every two weeks.
  • Take the pet dog out of the house regularly and take care of the skin, including combing and brushing.
  • Wash pet bedding, soft cushions, and accessories regularly.

If you don’t have pets in your home, but if you’re visiting friends or relatives who have pets, take an antihistamine an hour before entering their home.

Pollen Molecules, or Pollen

 The pollination of different types of plants occurs at various times of the year.  So what time of the year the incidence of allergic rhinitis will increase will depend on the type of pollen you are allergic to. However, most people are usually affected by allergic rhinitis during spring and summer when the amount of pollen particles in the air increases.

Taking the following measures can effectively prevent allergic rhinitis caused by pollen:

  • Stay indoors as much as possible during the changing seasons, especially during summer and spring.
  • Close the doors and windows of the room early in the morning and before evening. This is when the pollen count in the air is highest.
  • If the amount of pollen in the air increases, avoid going out of the house unless necessary. If you have to go out alone, take a bath after returning home. Wash the clothes you have worn outside.
  • If possible, dry clothes indoors. But you have to be careful that fungus does not grow in the house.
  • Avoid walking on grassy areas.

Mold or fungus

A warm and humid environment can increase the incidence of such allergies. Follow the tips below to prevent this:

  • Besides keeping the environment of the house dry, maintain good light and air circulation.
  • Repair damp and humid areas inside the house.
  • Open windows while bathing and cooking. However, keep the kitchen and bathroom doors closed so that the steam does not spread inside the house. Also, use an exhaust fan to blow the steam out of the house.
  • Avoid drying wet clothes indoors. Avoid storing clothes in damp places and keeping too many clothes tightly packed in certain places in the closet.
  • If there is a tree in the house, remove it.

Diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis:

The doctor asks the patient various questions to confirm whether allergic rhinitis is present or not. For example,

  • Whether a specific allergic material influences the manifestation of the symptoms or not
  • Whether the symptoms occur at a specific place or time
  • Does anyone in the family suffer from such problems?
    In addition to these, the doctor can also check whether there is a ‘polyp’ in the nose or not. Polyps are known by many people as ‘problems of flesh growing inside the nose’. Allergic rhinitis can cause nasal polyps due to inflammation inside the nose.

It should be noted that if the patient’s symptoms are relieved by the use of antihistamines, it is almost certain that the symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and cold are caused by an allergic reaction. However, if the true cause of allergic rhinitis is not certain, the doctor may recommend some special allergy tests.

Complications of Allergic Rhinitis

Some complications can develop from allergic rhinitis. A runny nose and stuffy nose can cause other problems. For example,

  • Insomnia, also known as sleep problems, is a common sleep disorder.
  • Drowsiness, even during the day
  • Being irritable
  • Having trouble concentrating on work.

Asthma symptoms may worsen if the patient has both allergic rhinitis and asthma.

Nasal inflammation in allergic rhinitis can cause some complications. For example,

  • Nasal polyps
  • Sinusitis
  • An infection occurring within the ear
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