How is acne treated and why does it occur?

acne treatment

Breakouts from acne are a common experience for most people. Many people continue to experience acne well into their adult or teen years. However, a lot of people are unaware of the causes of acne and its remedies.

One kind of skin follicle illness is acne. Typically, acne affects the face, neck, back, and chest. But it usually affects the nose and cheeks the most. Small pimples, boils, or rashes are caused by acne. For other people, acne is a year-round problem, even though it doesn’t persist for long. Stress can be a result of acne. Skin scarring may arise from this. Therefore, the likelihood of such issues decreases as treatment begins earlier.

Why do people get acne?

The hormones progesterone and testosterone cause the skin’s sebaceous glands to release oil more often during puberty. For whatever reason, there is a stoppage in the sebum or oil secretion when the mouth of the duct of the sebaceous gland is clogged. After that, it builds up inside and swells, finally rupturing the gland and leaking oil into the surrounding tissue. Bacteria then break down this oil, producing fatty acids in the tissue. These fatty acids cause skin inflammation, which is the cause of rashes. We refer to this as acne.

When acne is infected, it might show signs like these:

1. Tiny red rash:

An infected acne-related skin irritation might appear as a tiny red rash. The afflicted region could feel painful to the touch and be swollen and inflamed.


2. Tiny white pimples that burst when pressed:

Tiny pustules or white boils can result from infected acne. These boils could contain pus, which might come out when pressure is applied.


3. A big, painful, hard lump under the skin:

Infected acne can occasionally result in the formation of a larger, hard lump under the skin. In comparison to other forms of acne, this kind of acne, known as a cyst, can be uncomfortable and may take longer to heal.


4. A pus-filled lump:

A bigger pus-filled lump is another symptom of infected acne. Following this, there might be swelling, redness, and discomfort in the affected area.


It’s crucial to remember that not all cases of acne are infected, and these symptoms are unique to those instances. For an accurate diagnosis and course of therapy for acne, speaking with a dermatologist or other healthcare provider is advised.

Acne can manifest itself in several ways. Here are a few instances:

1. Tropical acne:

excessive heat and humidity are linked to this type of acne. It frequently happens in tropical areas where increased sweating can clog the pores on the skin.


2. Premenstrual acne:

Before their periods, some women get facial acne. Hormonal changes that take place during the menstrual cycle are thought to be the cause of this.


3. Cosmetic acne:

Extended use of some cosmetics, particularly those that are greasy or thick, can exacerbate acne. These items could clog pores and cause acne.


4. Steroid acne:

Whether taken orally or used topically, steroid drugs can occasionally cause acne as a side effect. We call this steroid acne.


5. Alkaline-induced acne:

The skin’s natural pH balance can be upset by overusing alkaline products, such as harsh soaps and detergents. This may remove the lipid barrier from the skin and cause acne breakouts.


When ought one to visit a physician?

1. Persistent acne despite self-care:

It’s best to see a doctor if you’ve been taking good care of your skin and maintaining a healthy routine but your acne infection has not improved or is getting worse. They can assess the severity of your acne and recommend the best course of action, including medication.


2. Acne that leaves considerable mental anguish or scars:

Getting medical help is crucial if your acne is leaving you with noticeable emotional distress or scars on your skin. A dermatologist can help avoid or reduce scarring and offer advice on how to deal with the psychological effects of acne.


3. Adult-onset acne or acne that manifests as a sign of another illness:

Even though acne is frequently linked to youth, it can linger into adulthood. In rare instances, adult or geriatric acne may also be a sign of an underlying medical issue. It is advised to see a doctor for a full evaluation and suitable treatment if you have acne that develops later in life or if you think it might be connected to an underlying medical condition.


Both dermatologists and general practitioners can offer advice in these situations, prescribe any necessary drugs, and, if necessary, send you to a specialist.

Here are some suggested steps and safety measures to follow when treating acne:

1. Cleanse your face:

Use a mild cleanser or face wash designed especially for skin prone to acne to wash your face at least once a day. Scrubbing too vigorously can irritate the skin, so try to avoid doing so.


2. Keep your hands off:

Avoid using your hands to scratch or pick at your zits, as this might spread bacteria and exacerbate irritation. It’s preferable to let them heal on their own by leaving them alone.


3. Steer clear of oily makeup:

To avoid clogging pores, use moisturizers, sunscreen, and non-comedogenic or oil-free makeup. Seek out goods with the labels “non-comedogenic” or “non-acnegenic.”


4. Sufficient rest and sleep:

Sufficient rest and sleep can improve the general health of your skin. Acne may worsen as a result of sleep deprivation and stress.


5. Keep your scalp clean:

Dandruff can exacerbate breakouts of acne on the forehead and hairline, so keep your scalp tidy and clear of it. If required, use an anti-dandruff shampoo.


6. Maintain a well-balanced diet:

Take in a wholesome diet high in antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. A balanced diet helps promote the health of your skin, so make sure to include fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean meats in your meals.


7. Restrict specific foods:

Some people discover that particular foods, especially dairy products (like cheese, milk, and yoghurt), pickles, chutneys, and sugary or fizzy drinks, might make their acne worse. If you see a link between these meals and your breakouts, think about cutting back or avoiding them.


8. Select non-oily creams and foundations:

To reduce pore-clogging and possible acne flare-ups, use skincare products, such as creams and foundations, but make sure they are non-comedogenic and oil-free.


9. Control your stress:

Stress can aggravate acne. To help reduce stress levels, take part in stress-relieving activities including exercise, meditation, and hobbies.


10. Take precautions against the sun:

While brief advantages for acne can come from moderate sun exposure, prolonged sun exposure can cause irritation and skin damage. Use sunscreen, find shade, and cover up with protective apparel to protect your skin.

Treatment of acne:

1. Over-the-counter (OTC) products:

By unclogging pores, lowering inflammation, and eliminating germs, OTC topical treatments with chemicals like salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, or sulphur can help decrease acne. These products come in a variety of formats, including cleansers, lotions, gels, and spot treatments.


2. Prescription drugs:

To treat the hormonal reasons for acne, such as oral contraceptives for women or antibiotics like erythromycin and tetracycline, a doctor may prescribe oral medications in more severe cases. In addition, retinoid medications, such as Retin-A (tretinoin), are frequently administered to aid with pore cleaning and encourage skin cell turnover.


3. Prescription topical drugs:

To treat moderate to severe acne, a dermatologist may prescribe topical retinoids, prescription-strength benzoyl peroxide, or combination solutions containing both.


4. Professional treatments:

Chemical peels, microdermabrasion, laser therapy, and corticosteroid injections for severe acne lesions are among the procedures that physicians and estheticians can perform in the office.


5. Natural remedies:

Using natural medicines can help some people feel better. For instance, applying a face mask made entirely of honey may have antimicrobial qualities that help lessen acne. It is said that massaging with olive oil has calming and moisturizing properties. In acne skincare programs, other organic substances like Triphala, rose water, or tea tree oil are occasionally included.


It’s crucial to remember that although natural treatments may have certain advantages, there may not be enough proof from science to support their efficacy in treating acne. For individualised advice and to make sure the selected therapies are secure and appropriate for your particular disease, it is always essential to speak with a dermatologist or other healthcare provider.

Some misconceptions about acne:

You’re right that there are a lot of false beliefs about acne. Here are a few more explanations:

1. Stress and acne:

Stress may exacerbate pre-existing acne or trigger flare-ups, but it does not directly cause acne. Stress can cause the body to undergo hormonal changes, which can increase inflammation and oil production and make acne more visible.


2. Nutrition and acne:

There is still much to learn about the complicated interaction between nutrition and acne. There isn’t enough data to conclude that chocolate or other sweet foods cause acne in the majority of people, even if some people may feel that certain foods make their acne worse. But for general skin health, eating a balanced diet is crucial.


3. Uncleanliness and dirty skin:

Dirt and poor hygiene are not the root causes of acne. Bacterial activity, blocked pores, and excessive sebum production are the main variables that affect it. Scrubbing or overwashing the skin can actually aggravate acne by irritating the skin.


4. Makeup and acne:

Not every cosmetic or makeup item aggravates acne. However some thick or greasy makeup might potentially clog pores and cause acne breakouts, especially if it isn’t removed correctly. Selecting oil-free, dermatologist-tested, non-comedogenic cosmetics is crucial for people with acne-prone skin.


For precise information and tailored guidance about acne and its management, it’s critical to rely on scientific data and speak with medical professionals like dermatologists.


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