What is proteinuria, who gets it, why it happens, and what is the relationship with diet?

What is proteinuria

What is proteinuria?

Excretion of more than normal amounts of protein in urine is a health risk. Medical professionals refer to this condition as proteinuria. Know when such a situation arises.

Kidneys act much like filters. Through purification, the vital organ retains useful substances in the body and expels harmful substances through urine. It keeps the blood pure. Just as any variation in the pores or structure of the filter does not perform the desired function properly, so it is with the kidneys.

In some diseases, the kidney’s normal filtration process becomes disrupted, causing the body to excrete excess protein. Normally, larger proteins (such as albumin) cannot pass through the kidney filter, but less than 30 mg per day But if there is a defect in the filter hole, a very important protein like albumin also gets out easily.

The normal range includes up to 150 mg of protein excreted in the urine throughout the day. Excreting more than 150 mg of protein in the urine throughout the day is detrimental to health.

Then there is a negative impact on health. Medical terms refer to the excretion of more than normal protein as proteinuria.

What causes proteinuria?

The main cause of proteinuria in Bangladesh is kidney inflammation, medically known as glomerulonephritis. People with diabetes and high blood pressure are at risk of kidney damage, especially those whose diabetes or blood pressure is not under control.

Long-term, uncontrolled diabetes and high blood pressure cause unwanted changes in the blood vessels of the kidneys, resulting in protein excretion in the urine. These three diseases are responsible for almost 90 percent of cases of proteinuria in the country.

Proteins can be excreted in the urine in certain diseases, such as vasculitis, lupus nephritis, multiple myeloma, and amyloidosis. such as vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels), lupus nephritis, multiple myeloma (a type of blood cancer), and amyloidosis (a disease in which proteins accumulate abnormally in the body).

But the number of such patients is smaller. Dehydration, infection or fever, urinary tract infections, or heavy exercise can cause temporary protein excretion.

In our country, many people still cannot afford to eat protein-rich food according to their daily needs. So our sugar intake is high. Sugar accumulates in the body. Increases fat. Increases fat also increases the risk of diabetes and high blood pressure.

However, if a healthy person consumes excess protein, it can cause extra stress on the kidneys. Therefore, one must determine the daily protein requirement. It has a simple calculation. You should eat as many grams of protein per day as you weigh. If you weigh 60 kg, you can eat 60 grams of protein.

A large egg contains 6 to 8 grams of protein. 100 grams of chicken meat contains 26–27 grams of protein. Different types of fish vary in protein content. However, approximately 22–26 grams of protein are available in 100 grams of fish. Tuna fish is high in protein. 1 cup of milk contains 7-8 grams of protein. If your weight is 60 kg, then eating 100 grams of meat, 100 grams of fish, 1 egg, and half a cup of milk a day will meet your protein requirements.

How can we reduce the risk of kidney disease-proneuria?

There is no substitute for a healthy lifestyle to prevent proteinuria and any kidney disease.

A well-balanced diet is essential. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty foods as needed, as well as lots of vegetables and fruits, Drink enough water daily.

Keep the body active. Manual labor is desirable. Set aside time every day for activities such as exercise or sports that involve physical exertion.

Keep your weight under control. Find out what the right weight is for you according to your height. Keep your weight within that limit. Excess weight also increases the risk of diabetes and high blood pressure.

Avoid smoking. Smoking damages kidney blood vessels.

Even if you are not a smoker, secondhand smoke can damage your kidneys. So everyone should be discouraged from smoking.

40 Payroll requires some testing at least once every year.

These tests are important even if you feel completely healthy physically.

It is necessary to know whether you have diabetes or kidney disease, whether protein is passing in the urine, and how your blood pressure is. Remember, this type of disease can remain dormant in your body for years without any symptoms.

If you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or long-term kidney disease, be sure to stay under the supervision of a doctor. Follow all the doctor’s advice to keep these diseases under control.

Who is at higher risk for proteinuria?

  • Those suffering from diabetes
  • Those suffering from high blood pressure.
  • Those who weigh more than normal
  • Those who have a family history of proteinuria
  • The risk of proteinuria and kidney failure is highest in people with diabetes. Therefore, it is recommended that diabetic patients undergo another urine test to detect proteinuria at an early stage. This is the urinary ACR (albumin-creatinine ratio). Although the test is a bit expensive, getting it done once a year can save a lot of unwanted future costs. People with chronic kidney disease should also get the test done at least once a year.

Author: Head of Department, Department of Kidney, Dhaka Medical College and Hospital


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